WORLD LEADERS MUST MEET FOR THE FUTURE OF HUMANITY
Heads of Government of All Nations of the World must Meet to safeguard the future of humanity
and especially of the world's over 2.5 billion children and the generations yet-to-be born
The future of the over 40 crore children of India and the world's over 2.5 billion children has become progressively more insecure and unprotected during the past seven decades, since the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the recent spread of international terrorism, stockpiling of weapons of mass destruction, fear of a third world war, global warming & climate change etc.
Today, our highly interdependent world is without any enforceable world law and justice. Large amounts of resources are being used for the research, development and production of even deadlier weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems leaving little for the well-being of children and the humanity at large. Some key areas of concern are:Large amounts of resources are being used for the research, development and production of even deadlier weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems leaving little for the well-being of children and the humanity at large. Some key areas of concern are:
- Problems of children of India and the world such as malrourisheet, hunger, shelter, education, health and poverty etc. have only multiplied in the last few decades, with the result that today they are the worst sufferers.
- An alarming increase in global military expenditure by various countries to safeguard their national territories has had a disastrous effect on the future of the world's children and the generations yet-to-be born, as it has deprived them of their basic rights to food, shelter, education, health, sanitation and security.
- There have been over 125,000 acts of terrorism
all over the world between the years 1970 and 2013. According to the Global Terrorism Database (maintained in the University of Maryland, USA) of the 17,958 people who died in terrorist attacks in 2013, 82 percent were in one of five countries: Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Syria. That's one finding from this year's Global Terrorism Index report, published by the Institute for Economics and Peace.
- Today the world has approximately 17,300 active nuclear bombs, which are a threat to the survival of mankind including 2.5 million the children of the world.
- James Lovelace, the father of the science of climate change, recently said that more than 100 million people will die by the year 2030 because of environmental degradation and climate change.
- Thus, the theme of the Conference i.e. "Uniting the World for children through Enforceable World Law and Effective Global Governance, is very relevant to the need of our time.
- It is only the world judiciary that can bring a ray of hope for humanity. The united world judiciary, as the custodian of humanity's silent masses, must assume a proactive role in guiding and shepherding humanity to a better future.
- We believe that there is an absolutely urgent need for consultations among the world's political leaders for redressing and addressing global problems and issues.
- In the past, the world has seen the formation of great institutions where nations have agreed to join hands for the common good of humanity. All such institutions were due to the initiatives of visionary leaders as pointed out below:
Woodrow Wilson, the then President of USA, took the initiative and called a meeting of world leaders which led to the formation of the League of Nations in 1919. Its main purpose was to mediate on differences and resolve them peacefully. The League of Nations was able to deter wars for some two decades. It failed in the end because its decisions were not enforceable and it could not stop the outbreak of the IInd World War.
Franklin D Roosevelt, the then President of USA, took the initiative and called a consultative meeting of world leaders which led to the formation of the United Nations Organization (UNO) on 24 October, 1945 following the Second World War. There were 51 countries that originally signed the U.N. Charter.
Robert Schuman, the then Prime Minister of France, took the initiative of calling a meeting of 76 members of parliament of various European Countries which led to the formation of European Union and the European Parliament of 28 European Countries and Euro Currency of 18 European Countries which have brought unity and peace in Europe.
Since the creation of the UNO in 1945, global realities have undergone changes, reflecting the alteration of geopolitics. Scientific and technological advancements have brought far-reaching changes thus ushering in an era of globalization which has brought new challenges that the present international agencies are not equipped to deal with. Many eminent persons have, therefore, called for reform of the United Nations.
Even after the formation of the U.N.O. many eminent personalities realized that everlasting peace is possible only when there is world unity and World Government. Given below are some expressions of great leaders favouring world unity and world government:
- Mahatma Gandhi said: “The future peace, security, and ordered progress of the world demands a federation of free nations, and on no other basis can the problems of the modern world be solved.”
- Dr Radhakrishnan, President of India said: “There will be a central authority to which a fraction of the sovereignty of independent nation states will have to be given up for the security of the whole world .”
- I wrote and requested the then Secretary-General of the United Nations Dr Kofi A. Annan to initiate efforts to form world government which alone could eliminate danger of nuclear holocaust and solve other problems of the world. In his reply in a message on11th October 1999, Dr. Kofi A. Annan wrote back:
- It is shocking to think that almost half of us – three billion out of the six billion – are entering the new era in abject poverty, with less than two dollars a day, or less, to live on. That is one thing we really must change.
- It is also shocking that people in so many places today are exposed to violence and brutality. The twentieth century has been the most murderous in human history. We must make sure the twenty-first century is more peaceful, and more humane.
- And it is worrying that the world's climate seems to be changing, in a way, which could destroy the homes and livelihood of millions. Controlling and managing this process may yet prove to be the biggest challenge of all.
- People all over the world look up to the United Nations to protect them - from hunger, disease and violence and natural disasters – whenever the task seems too big for nations, or regions, to handle alone. But we at the United Nations can do nothing alone, either. Our strength is the strength of our member states, when they agree to act together for the common good.
- Next year, leaders from all over the world will come to New York for the Millennium Summit (from 6th to 8th September 2000). They will consider the challenges ahead, and what the United Nations can do to face them. Those leaders will be representing you, the people of the United Nations. It is up to you to make sure that they come here firmly resolved to take decisions which can lead to a better life for all of us, and for our children.
- In that spirit, it gives me great pleasure to extend to the World Peace Prayer Society and the City Montessori School of Lucknow my best wishes for a successful and memorable International Peace Festival. I am counting on you all – and I thank you all."
- Dr Kofi Annan, Secretary-General of the United Nations thus expressed his helplessness saying that “We at United Nations can do nothing alone, our strength is the strength of our member states when they agree to act together for the common good.”
- It is ironical that the many proposals on important issues passed by the General Assembly of the United Nations were not respected by one or the other permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as is amply evidenced by the 269 vetoes that they exercised at various times.
- As suggested by the U.N. Secretary General, we wrote to Heads of State and Heads of Government of all countries of the world to provide children of the world their right to a safe future. Since political leadership did not support our request, we decided to approach the world judiciary because we believed that United World Judiciary is the last hope of humanity's survival. The Judges are held in the highest regard because of their dedication to justice, impartiality and regard to universal values and law.
- There have been instances when the judiciary has prevented the national government from making politically or economically expedient decisions which are harmful for future generations. A case in point is of Minors Oposa vs Secretary of Government of Philippines Mr. Factoran, dated 30 July 1993 in the Supreme Court of Philippines through Chief Justice Hilario G. Davide, Jr., in which Mr Justice Davide expanded the principle of locus standi by allowing 43 children from all over the Philippines to bring the action on their own behalf and on behalf of the children of their generation and that of the generations yet-to-be born to enforce the right to 'a balanced and healthful ecology'.
- The Philippine Supreme Court stated that unless the State protects the environment “the day would not be too far when all else would be lost not only for the present generation, but also for those to come – generations which inherit nothing but parched Earth incapable of sustaining life”.
- The judgment given by Chief Justice Hilario G. Davide, Jr has great importance, as it means that judicious use of one's power of office can result in a better future for all. It is also about understanding that anything can be achieved if the good of humanity is at the heart of any well-meaning effort.
- The Conferences of the World Judiciary have strongly supported the formation of a World Parliament, a World Government and a World Court of Justice which is evident from various resolutions passed by the world judiciary during the past 17 International Conferences of Chief Justices of the World on Article 51 of the Constitution of India, held during past 16 years, organized by City Montessori School since the year 2001 in Lucknow.
- Article 51 of the Constitution of India is a mandate to the government of India and all instruments of the government, including our Prime Minister, to make an earnest endeavour to promote international peace and international security as envisioned and enshrined in the said Article which states:
- The State shall endeavour to:
- promote international peace and security,
- maintain just and honourable relations between nations,
- foster respect for international law... and,
- encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.
- Article 51 of the Constitution of India hus mandates the Government of India to initiate an endeavour to unite the world as the words “The State shall endeavour” makes it mandatory for the Head of the Government of India to make an earnest endeavour to achieve the objectives, the purpose and the goal of Article 51 of the Constitution of India.
- The following 4 points are relevant for action, on Article 51 of the Constitution of India: The word 'shall' has been used in the mandate of Article 51 of the Constitution of India instead of 'should' or 'may', and therefore mandates the state to take action on the said article.
- Definition of State Article 51 is in Part IV of the Constitution of India which contains Directive Principles of State Policy. For the purpose of this Article, the definition of 'THE STATE' as given in Article 36 in Part IV read with Article 12 in Part III, states that "Unless the context otherwise requires, 'THE STATE' includes the Government and Parliament of India and the Government and the legislature of each of the states and all local or other authorities within the territory of India or under the control of the Government of India."
- Courts will uphold in favour of Directive Principles as against the Fundamental Rights if they are in the larger interest of the society.
Article 31-C, added by the Constitution (25th Amendment) Act, 1971, seeks to upgrade the Directive Principles. If the Directive Principles aim at promoting the larger interest of the society, the courts will have to uphold the case in favour of Directive Principles in case of conflict with Fundamental Rights. (Article 51 is in the larger interest of society)
- Directive Principles are fundamental in the governance of the country and the Government is bound to enforce those directions.
The Supreme Court in the Kesavananda Bharati vs. State of Kerala Case ruled that the 'moral rights' embodied in Part IV are as much of an equally essential feature of the Constitution as Fundamental Rights, and are fundamental in the governance of the country, and all the organs of the State are bound to enforce those directions.
- Directive Principles act as checks on the Government the Directive Principles act as a check on the Government, theorized as a yardstick in the hands of the people to measure the performance of the Government. Therefore, the Head of the Government and his Government should keep these principles in view while framing laws and planning its activities and actions, as these principles are fundamental in the governance of the country and it shall be the duty of the state to apply these principles in making laws.
- Children are the Common Concern and the Common Denominator for all the Nations of the World. World Peace is a by-product of World Unity. Your Honour would also concur that unless there is world unity there cannot be world peace. Hence, 'World Unity' is a pre-requisite for 'World Peace' and the fruit of 'World Peace' can grow only on the 'tree of World Unity'.
World Unity requires two things:
- A common denominator or a common concern and
- A binding thread
We believe that the world's over 2.5 billion children and the generations yet-to-be born are the common concern or the common denominator for all the nations of the world and heads of government of all the countries of the world must consult on the formation of a democratically elected World Parliament empowered to enact Enforceable World Law, a World Government that can enforce those laws, and a World Court of Justice that can interpret world laws.
We believe that our Prime Minister, must initiate the process of calling a meeting of Heads of Government of all the nations of the world as per the constitutional mandate of Article 51 of the Constitution of India, leading to the formation of a World Parliament, World Government and a World Court of Justice.
(Dr Jagdish Gandhi)
& Convenor of the Conference